Performance Objectives

Seismic and Designan And Procedures

Figure 1-1. Performance and structural deformation demand for ductile structures.

Figure 1-2 Performance And Structural deformation Demand Nonductile Structures

Minimum Analytical Pro cedures

Quality Assurance - ufc_3_310_03a0021

General - ufc_3_310_03a0022

Figure 2-1. Description Of Acceleration Response Spectrum

Site Hazards Other than Ground Motion.

Behavior of Structures.

Fundamentals of Seismic Design.

Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems.

Figure 2-2 . Vertical Elements Of the Lateral Force Resisting Systems.

Configuration and Simplicity.

Redundancy

Ductile vs. Brittle Response.

Connectivity.

Elements that Connect Buildings

Alternatives to the Prescribed Provisions.

Chapter 3. Ground Motion And Geological Hazards Assessment

Design Parameters for Ground Motion A

Design Parameters for Ground Motion A - Continued

Table 3-1. Site Classification

Table 3-2a. Values of F As A Function Of Site Class And Mapped Short- Period Spectral Response Acceleration S.

Modal Analysis Procedure.

Figure 3-1. Seismic Coefficient, Cs.

Figure 3-2. Design Response Spectural

Modal forces, deflections, and drifts.

Design values for sites outside the U.S.

Design values for sites outside the U.S. - Continued

Table 3-3

Table 3-3 cont.

Tabnle 3-3 cont.

Design Parameters for Ground Motion B.

Site-Specific Determination Of Ground Motion.

General Approaches.

Overview of Methodology.

Characterizing Earthquake Sources.

Figure 3-3. Development of response spectrum based on a fixed spectrum shape

Figure 3-4. Development of equal-hazard response spectrum from probabilistic seismic

Figure 3-5. Major Active in California ( After Wesnousky, 1986).

Figure 3-6. Cross Section through Puget Sound. Washington, Showing Subbduction Zone ( from nolson And Others. 1988).

Recurrence relationships. Recurrence Relationships

Recurrence relationships. Recurrence Relationships - Continued

Figure 3-7 Relation between earthquake magnitude and rupture area

Figure 3-8. Diagrammatic characteristic earthquake recurrence relationship for an individual

Figure 3-9. Comparison Of Exponential and Characteristics Earhquake Magnitude Distributions.

Characterizing Ground Motion Attenuation.

Characterizing Ground Motion Attenuation. - Continued

Figures 3-10. Example of Attenuation Relationships For Response Spectral Accelerations (5% Damping).

Figure 3-11. Example Of Ground Motion Data Scatter for a Single Earhtquake ( From Seed And ldriss. 1982).

Concluding Probabilistics Seismis Hazard Analyses

Developing Response Spectra from the PSHA

Figure 3-12. Example seismic hazard curve showing relationship between peak ground acceleration

Accounting for Local Site Effects on Response Spectra.

Accounting for Local Site Effects on Response Spectra. - Continued

Figure 3-13. Construction Of Equal- Hazard Spectra.

Figure 3-14. Response spectra and ratio of response spectra for ground motions recorded

Special Characteristics of Ground Motion For Near-Source Earthquakes.

Vertical Ground Motions.

Figure 3-15. Schematic Of Site Response Analysis .

Figure 3-16. Acceleration and velocity time histories for the strike-normal

Geologic Hazards.

Geologic Hazards. - Continued

Figure 3-17. Distance dependency of response spectral ratio (V/H) for M 6.5 at rock

Chapter 4. Application of Criteria

Table 4-1 Seismic Use Groups

Table 4-1 Seismic Use Groups - Continued

Seismic Use Groups.

Seismic Design Categories.

Table 4-2a Seismic Design Category Based on Short Period Response Accelerations

Overstrength.

Structural Performance Levels

Design Ground Motions.

Table 4-4. Structural System Performance Objectives

Table 4-5 Step-by-Step Procedures for Performance Objective 1A (Life Safety) - ufc_3_310_03a0094

Table 4-5 Step-by-Step Procedures for Performance Objective 1A (Life Safety) - ufc_3_310_03a0095

Performance Pbjectives For Nonstructural Systems And Components

Figure 4-1. Flow Chart for Performance Objective 1A (All Buildings)

Table 4-6. Step-by-Step Procedures For Enhanced Performance Objectives With Linear Elastic Analyses Using M Factors

Figure 4-2. Flow Chart For Performance Objective 2A ( Seismic Use Group II Buildings)

Figure 4-3. Flow Chart For Performance Objective 2B ( Seismic Use Group III Buiildings )

Table 4-7 . Step-by Step Procedure for Enhanced Performance Objective With Nonlinear Elastic Static Analysis

Table 4-7. Step-by- Step Procedure for Enhanced Performance Objective With Nonlinear Elastic Static Analysis

Figure 4-4. Flow Chart for Performance Objective 3B ( Seismic Use Group III E Buildings )

Chapter 5. Analysis Procedures

Linear Elastic Static Procedure .

Linear Elastic Dynamic Procedure.

When Nonlinear Procedures are Required.

When Nonlinear Procedures are Required. - Continued

Figure 5-1: In- Plane Discontinuity in Lateral System

Figure 5-2: Typical Building With Out- Of Place Offset Irregularity.

Limitations on Use of the Procedure

Modeling and Analysis Criteria.

Period determination.

Figure 5-3: Calculation of Effective Stiffness K

Determination of Actions and Deformations.

Determination of Actions and Deformations. - Continued

Target displacement.

Target Replacement Cont.

Table 5-2: Values for Modification Factor C.

Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure.

Alternative Rational Analyses.

Chapter 6. Acceptance Criteria

Table 6-1. Allowable Story Drift,? (in, or mm)

Enhanced Performance Objectives.

General. - ufc_3_310_03a0125

Figure 6-1 General Component Behavior Curves

General. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0127

General. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0128

General. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0129

Figure 6-2. Idealized Component Load Versus Deformation Curves for Depicting Component Modeling and Acceptability

Force-controlled actions.

Nonlinear Static Procedure.

Actions and Deformations.

Concrete Moment Frames. - ufc_3_310_03a0134

Reinforced concrete shear walls. - ufc_3_310_03a0135

Reanalysis.

Figure 6-3. Definition of Chord Rotation

Figure 6-4. Plastic Hinge Rotation in Shear Wall Where Flexure Dominates Inelastic Response

Reinforced concrete shear walls. - ufc_3_310_03a0139

Reinforced masonry shear walls

Figure 6-5. Chord Rotation for Shear Wall Coupling Beams

Chapter 7. Structure Systems And Components

Table 7-1. Design Coefficients And Factors for Basic Seismic - Force Resisting Systems

Tabnle 7-1 (Cont'd) Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic- Force - Resisting - Systems

Table 7-1. (cont'd) Design Coefficients And Factors for Basic Seismic- Force - Resisting Systems

Table 7-1( cont'd ) Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic- Force Resisting Systems

Table 7-1-( Cont'd ) Design Coefficients And Factors Basic Seismic- Force Resisting- Systems

Shear Walls.

Design Forces.

Rigidity analysis.

Figure 7-2. Deformation of Shear Wall With Openings

Effect of openings.

Figure 7-3. Relative Rigidities of Piers and Spandrels

Figure 7-4. Design Curves for Masonry And Concrete Shear Walls

Figure 7-4. Design Curves

Methods of analysis.

Figure 7-5. Out-of-Plane Effects

Cast-in-Place Concrete Shear Walls.

Figure 7-6. Minimum Concrete Shear Wall Reinforcement

Figure 7-7. Minimum Concrete Shear Wall Reinforcement

Boundary zone requirements for special reinforced concrete shear walls.

Figure 7-8. Boundary Zones in a Special Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall

Figure 7-8. Boundary Zones in a Special Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall - Continued

Table 7-2. Numeric Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures-Members Controlled by Flexure

Table 7-3. Numeric Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures-Members Controlled by Shear

Tilt-up and Other Precast Concrete Shear Walls

Table 7-4. Modeling Parameters and Numerical Acceptance Criteria For Nonliner Procedures

Table 7-5: Modeling And Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Nonclinear Procedutres Members Controlled by Shear.

Masonry Shear Walls.

Figure 7-9. Tilf-Up And Other Precast Walls - Typical Details of Attachments

Bond beams.

Figure 7-10. Reinforced Arouted Masonry

Figure 11. Reinforced Hollow Masonry

Figure 7-12. Reinforced Filled - Cell Masonry

Figure 7-13. Location of Bond Deams

Design considerations. - ufc_3_310_03a0176

Figure 7-14. Typical Wall Reinforcement

Reinforcing at wall openings.

Figure 7-15. Reinforcement Around Wall Openings

Figure 7-18. Masonry Wall Details

Figure 7-16. Continued

Excluded materials.

Table 7-6. Lateral Support Requirements for Masonry Walls.

Wood Stud Shear Walls.

Table 7-7: Linear Static Procedure -m Factors for Reinforced Masonry In- Plane Walls

Table7-8: Nonlinear Static Procedure - Simplified Force- Deflection Relations for Reinforced Masorny Shears Walls

Figure 7-17. Plywood Sheathed Wood Stud Shear Walls

Table 7-9. Factored Shear Resistance in Kips Per Foot (KLF) For Seismic Force

Table 7-9. Factored Shear Resistance in Kips Per Foot (KLF) For Seismic Force - Continued

Figure 7-18. Wood Stud Walls

Steel Braced Frames.

Concentric Braced Frames.

Figure 7-19. Concentric Braced Frames

Figure 7-21. Effective Lenght of Cross- Bracing

Low buildings.

Figure 7-22. Gusset Plate Design Criteria

Acceptance criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0197

Table 7-10: Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures - Braced Frames Steel Shear Walls.

Table 7-11. Modeling Parameters And Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures - Braced Frames and Steel Shear Walls

Table 7-11. Modeling Parameters And Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures - Braced Frames - Continued

Figure 7-23. Eccentric Braced Frame Configurations

Figure 7-23 Eccentric Braced Frame configurations

Figure 7-24. Derformed Frame Geometry

Link- Beam Web.

Concrete Moment Resisting Frames.

Figure -7-25. Link Beam And Intermediate Stiffeners.

Table 7-12: Acceptance Criteria For Linear Procedures- Fully Restrained ( FR) Moment Frames

Table 7-13: Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures- Partially Restrained (PR) Moment Frames

Figure 7-26. Frame Deformations

Nonseismic Frames.

Acceptance Criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0211

Figure 7-27. Intermediate Moment Frame Requirements

Figure 7-28. Intermediate Moment Frame Longitudinal Reinforcement

Figure 7-29. Intermediate Moment Frame Splices in Reinforcement

Figure 7-30: Intermediate Moment Frame Transverse Reinforcement

Figure 7-31. Intermediate Moment Frame Girder Web Reinforcement.

Figure 7-32. Intermediate Moment Frame Transverse Reinforcement

Figure 7-33. Special Concreate Moment Frame- Limitations on Dimensions

Figure 7-34. Special Concreate Moment Frame Longitudinal Reinforcement

Figure 7-35. Special Moment Frame Splices in Reinforcement

Figure 7-38. Special Moment Frame - Transverse Reinforcement

Figure 7-37. Special Moment Frame Girder Web Reinforcement

Figure 7-38. Special Moment Frame Transverse Reinforcement

Figure 7-38. Special Moment Frame - Special Transverse Reinforcement

Figure 7-40. Special Frame- Girder Column Joint Analysis

Table 7-14: Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures- Reinforced Concreate Beams

Table 7-15: Numerical Accetance Criteria for Linear Procedures- Reinforced Concrete Columns.

Table 7-16. Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures- Reinforced Concreate Beam- Column Joints

Table 7-17: Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Linear Procedures-Two Way Slabs And Slab - Column Connections

Table 7-18: Modeling Parameters And Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures Reinforced Concrete Beams

Table 7-19: Modeling Parameters And Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures- Reinforced Concrete Columns

Steel Moment Resisting Frames

Table 7-20: Modeling Parameters And Numerical Acceptance for Nonlinear Procedures

Table 7-21: Modeling Parameters And Numerical Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures

Required shear strength.

Figure 7-41. Typical Pre-Northridge Fully Restrained Moment Connection

Figure 7-42. Typical Partially Restrained Moment Connection

Intermediate Moment Frames (IMFs).

Figure 7-43. Typical Post- Northridge Fully Restrained Moment Connection

Connection shear strength.

Lateral support at beams.

Special Truss Moment Frames (STMFs).

Special segment nominal strength.

Figure 7-44. Special Truss Moment Frame.

Acceptance Criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0245

Dual Systems.

Table 7-22: Modeling Parameters And Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures - Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Frames

Table 7-22: Modeling Parameters And Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures - Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Frames - Continued

Table 7-23: Modeling Parameters and Acceptance Criteria for Nonlinear Procedures

Moment Frame/Shear Wall Systems.

Diaphragms.

Diaphragm Flexibility.

Figure 7-45. Diaphragm Flexibility

Figure 7-47. Bracing An Industrial Building

Rotation.

Figure 7-48. Cantilever Diaphragm

Flexible Diaphragms

Figure 7-49. Building with Walls on the Three Sides

Rigid diaphragms.

Figure 7-50. Calculated Torsion.

Flexibility limitations.

Table 7-24: Span and Depth Limitations on Diaphragms

Deflection calculations.

Design of Diaphragms.

Concrete Diaphragms. - ufc_3_310_03a0265

Figure 7-51. Drag Struts At Re-entrant Building Corners

Precast concrete slab units

Figure 7-52. Anchorage of Cast- in Place Concrete Slab

Figure 7-53. Attachment of Superimposed Diaphragm Slab to Precast Slab Units

Figure -7-54. Precast Concrete Diaphragms Using Precast Units

Figure 7-55. Concrete Diaphragms Using Precast Units Details Permitted

Steel Deck Diaphragms.

Figure 7-56. Corner of Monollthic Concrete Diagram

Figure 5-57. Concrete Diaphragms - Typical Connection Details

Figure 7-58. Steel Deck Diaphragms

Figure 7-59. Steel Deck Diaphragms Type A- Typical Attachments

Figure 7-60. Steel Deck Diaphragms - Typical Details with Open Web joists

Figure 7-60 . cont.

Figure 61. Steel Deck Diaphragm Type B - Typical Attachments to Frame.

Figure 7-61 cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0280

Figure 7-61 cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0281

Wood Diaphragms.

Figure 7-62. Steel Deck Diaphragms with concrete Fill.

Material Requirements.

Acceptance criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0285

Figure 7-63. Wood Details.

Figure 7-63. Wood Details Continued. - ufc_3_310_03a0287

Figure 7-63 . Continued

Figure 7-63. Wood Details Continued. - ufc_3_310_03a0289

Table 7-25. Factored Shear Resistance in Kips Per Foot for Horizontal Wood Diaphragms with Framimg Members

Table 7-25 (cont )

Table 7-26. Numerical Acceptance Factors for Linear Procedures

Table 7-26. Numerical Acceptance Factors for Linear Procedures - Continued

Table 7-27: Normaliized Force Deflection Curve Coordinates for Nonlinear Procedures

Table 7-27: Normaliized Force Deflection Curve Coordinates for Nonlinear Procedures - Continued

Horizontal Bracing.

Chapter 8. Seidmic Isolation And Energy Dissipation Systems

Figure 8-1 Schematic Drawings of Representative Isolation/Energy

Mechanical Engineering Applications.

Design Objectives.

Seismic Isolation Systems.

Device Description.

Table 8-1. Damping Coefficient, BD or BM

Applications

Figure 8-2. Seismic Isolation Hard Soil Example

Figure 8-3. Seismic Isolation Soft Soil Examples

Figure 8-4. Seismic Isolation Very Soft Soil Example

Design Criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0308

Dynamic analysis.

Maximum Displacement.

Minimum lateral force.

Vertical distribution of force.

Dynamic Lateral Response Procedure.

Ground Motion

Analytical Procedure

Design Lateral Force.

Design and Construction Review.

Energy Dissipation Systems.

Table 8-2. Damping Coefficients Bs and B1 as a Function of Effective Damping β

Device Description

Figure 8-5. Supplemetal Damping Hard Soil Example

Figure 8-8. Supplemental Damping Very Soft Soil Example

Design Criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0323

Modeling of Energy-Dissipation Devices.

Velocity-dependent devices. - ufc_3_310_03a0325

Fluid viscous devices.

Figure 8-7. Calculation of Secant Stiffness K

Linear Static Procedures.

Figure 8-8. General Response Spectrum

Velocity-dependent devices. - ufc_3_310_03a0330

Velocity-dependent devices. - ufc_3_310_03a0331

Nonlinear Elastic Static Procedure.

Acceptance Criteria - ufc_3_310_03a0333

Guidance for Selection and Use of Seismic Isolation and Energy Dissipation Systems.

Earthquake Effects - Acceleration vs. Displacement

Site Selection - Inappropriate Sites.

Site Selection - Inappropriate Sites. - Continued

Table 8-3. Comparison of Building Behavior

Chapter 9. Foundations

Load Deformation Characteristics for Foundations

Figure 9-1 Idealized Elasto-Plastic Load-Deformation Behavior for Soils

Stiffness Parameters.

Figure 9-2 Elastic Solutions for Rigid Footing Spring Constants

Figure 9-3 (a) Foundation Shape Correction Factors (b) Embedment Correction Factors

Figure 9-4 Lateral Foundation-Soil Stiffness for Passive Pressure

Figure 9-5 Vertical Stiffness Modeling for Shallow Bearing Footings

Pile Foundations.

Figure 9-6 Idealized Concentration of Stress at Edge of Rigid Footings Subjected

Capacity Parameters.

General Requirements.

Design of Elements.

Basement Walls.

Acceptance Criteria. - ufc_3_310_03a0354

Changes

Chpater 10. Nonstructural Systems and Components

Seismic Forces.

Table 10-1: Architectural Components Coefficients

Table 10-2: Mechanical and Electrical Components Coefficients

Component Importance Factor.

Architectural Components.

Design Criteria.

Veneered walls

Figure 10-1. Typical Details of Isolation of Walls

Figure 10-2. Veneered Walls

Connections of Exterior Wall Panels.

Suspended Ceiling Systems.

Figure 10-3. Design Forces For Exterior Precast Alements

Alternative Designs.

Figure 10-4. Suspended Acoustical Tile Ceiling

Mechanical and Electrical Equipment.

Lighting Fixtures in Buildings

Piping in Buildings

Seismic Restraint Provisions.

Flexible Piping Systems.

Stacks.

Figure 10-5. Maximum span for rigid pipe pinned-pinned.

Figure 10-6. Maximum span for rigid pipe fixed-pinned.

Figure 10-7. Maximum span for rigid pipe fixed-fixed

Cantilever stacks.

Figure 10-8. Acceptable Seismic Details for Sway Bracing

Figure 10-9. Period Coefficients for Uniform Beams

Elevators.

Elevators. - Continued

Figure 10-10. Single Guyed- Stack

Acceptance Criteria - ufc_3_310_03a0386

Figure 10-11. Elevator Details

Figure 10-12.Typical Seismic Restraint of Hanging Equipment.

Figure 10-13. Typical Seismic Restrant of Floor Mountes Equipment

Appendix B. Symbols And Notations - ufc_3_310_03a0391

Appendix B. Symbols And Notations - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0392

Appendix B. Symbols And Notations - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0393

Appendix C. Glossary - ufc_3_310_03a0394

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0395

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0396

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0397

Appendix C. Glossary Cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0398

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0399

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0400

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0401

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0402

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0403

Appendix C. Glossary cont. - ufc_3_310_03a0404

Appendix D. Ground Motion Background Data

Earthquake Size.

Figure D1. Earthquake Source Model and Types of Seismic Waves ( From Bolt, 1993)

Figure D2. Types of Fault Slip

Figure D-3. The Richter Scale ( After Bolt, 1988).

Ground Motion Recordings and Ground Motion Characteristics

Ground Motion Recordings and Ground Motion Characteristics - Continued

Table D1. Moment Magnitude, M, And Seismic Moment, M Of Some Well known Earthquakes.

Table D-2. Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.

Table D-2.Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale - Continued

Figure D-4 Relation between earthquake magnitude and epicentral intensity

Figure D-5. Corralitos ground motion recording, component 0E, October 17, 1989,

Response Spectrum.

Figure Pacoima dam recording (S14W component) obtained 3 km (1.9 miles)

Figure D-7. Single Degree of Freedom System.

Figure D-8. Maximum Dynamic Load Factor for Sinusoidal Load.

Response Spectrum. - Continued

Figure D-9. Tripartite plot of the response spectrum from the Corralitos recording

Appendix E. Site- Specific Probabilistics Seismic Hazard Analysis.

Mathematical Formulation of the Basic Seismic Hazard Model.

Mathematical Formulation of the Basic Seismic Hazard Model. - Continued

Figure E-1. Typical Earthquake Recurrence Curves And Discretized Occurrence Rates.

Figure E-2. Illustration Of Distance Probability Distribution.

Treatment Of Modeling And Parameter Uncertainties in PSHA.

Analysis Results.

Figure E-3 Ground motion estimation conditional probability function.

Figure E-4 Example logic tree for characterizing uncertainty in seismic hazard inputYoungs et al., 1988)

Figure E-5. Example Of Distribution Of Seismic Hazard Results .r

Examples of PSHA Usage in Developing Site Specific Response Spectra.

Figure 6. Example Of Contributions Of Various Seismic Sources to The Mean Hazard At a Site.

Figure E-7. Example of contributions of events in various magnitude intervals to the hazard

Figure E-8. Example Of Uncertainty in Attenuation contribution to Seismic Hazard Uncertainty.

Figure E-9. Example Of Uncertainty in Maximum Magnitude Contribution to Seismic Hazard Uncertainty.

Figure E-10. Regional Active Fault Map, San Francisco Bay Area.

Figure E-11. Map Of the San Francisco Bay Area Showing Independent Earthquakes, Fault Corridors, And Areal Source Zones.

Figure E- 12. Comparison Of Recurrence Rates Developed from Independent Seismicity and from Fault Slip Rates Fo Fault.

Figure E-13. Comparison Of Recurrence Rates Developed from Independent Seismicity And From Fault Slip Rates fo

Figure E-14. Comprehensive Recurrence Model for The Central Bay Area.

Site in Illinois

Figure E-15. Generic Logic Tree Used To Characterize Seismic Sources for Probabilistics Seismic Hazard Analysis.

Figure E-16. Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships.

Table E-1. Dispersion Relationships For Horizontal Rock Motion From The Attenuation Relationships of Sadigh et al.(1993)

Figure E-17. Mean, 5th, and 95th percentile hazard curves for the site for peak acceleration

Figure E-18. Contributions of Various Sources to Mean Hazard At The Site.

Figure E-19. Contributions Of Events In Various Magnitude Intervals to the Mean Hazard at The Site.

Figure E-20 . Sensitivity Of Mean Hazard at The Site from The Choice Of Attenuation Model.

Figure E-21. Sensitivity Of Mean Hazard At The Site from the San An Reas Fault Only Due To Choice of Earthquake He San Andreas Fault.

Figure E-22. Equal-Hazard Pseudo- Velocity Response Spectra for The Site ( 5 Percent Damping).

Figure E-23. Seismic Source Zonation Model For The Central And Southeastern United States.

Figure E-24. Comparison of Historical And Paleoseismic Recurrence Estimates for The Reelfoot Rift And Iapetan Rift Seismic Zone.

Ground Motion Attenuation Characterization.

Figure E-25. Logic Tree Showing Relative Weights Assigned to Boundaries Separating Potential Subzones of the Iapetan Rift Seismic Zone.

Figure E-26 . Attenuation Curves Of Atkinson And Boore (1995) And EPRI (1993) for Peak Ground Acceleration at 1.0 Second Period.

Figure E-27. Computed Hazard for Peak Ground Acceleration And Response Spectral Accelerations At 0.2 And 1.0

Figure E-28. Contributions Of Components Of the ICR Source to The Hazard.

Figure E-29. Comparisons Of Hazard from the Geology And Seisimicity- Based Models

Ground Motion Attenuation Characterization. - Continued

Figure E-30. Equal Hazard Response Spectra (5% Damping).

Appendix F. Geological Hazards Evaluations

Figure F-1. Types Of Faults

Figure F-2. Surface Faulting Accompanying Landers, California Eathquake of june 28, 1992.

Figure F-3. House damaged by ground displacement caused by surface faulting

Soil liquefaction - ufc_3_310_03a0467

Figure F-4. Bearing Capacity Failure due to Liquefaction, Niigita, Japan Earthquake of June 16, 1964.

Figure F-5. Diagram of lateral spread before and after failure. Liquefaction occurs

Figure F-6. Lateral spreading failure due to liquefaction, University of California

Screening Procedures

Figure F-7. House and street damaged by several inches of landslide displacement

Figure F-8. Damage to store front caused by rock fall during the San Fernando

Soil liquefaction - ufc_3_310_03a0474

Sources of information.

Table F-1. Estimated Susceptibility of Sedimentary Deposits to Liquefaction During Strong Ground Motion ( After Youd And Perkins, 1978).

Soil differential compaction.

Evaluation Procedures

Figure F-9. Tsunami Zone Map Wave Heights

Fault location

Soil liquefaction.

Figure F-10. Relationship between maximum surface fault displacement (MD)

Seed-Idriss evaluation procedure

Figure F-11. Relationship between cyclic stress ratio (CSR) causing liquefaction

Table F-2. Scaling factors for influence of earthquake magnitude on liquefaction resistance

Consequences of liquefaction - ufc_3_310_03a0486

Figure F-12. Example of LIQUFAC analysis graphic plot

Consequences of liquefaction - ufc_3_310_03a0488

Figure F-13. Relationships Between Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR),(Ni) And VolumetricStrain for Saturated claean Sands (From Tokimatsu and Seed, 1987).

Figure F-14. Illustration Of Effects Of Liquefaction Or Increased Pore Water Pressures On Ultimate Bearing Capacity Foundations

Differential compaction.

Deformation analysis procedures

Figure F-15. Integration of acceleration time-history to determine velocities

Figure F-16. Cariation of Normalized Permanent Displacement With Yield Acceletation- Summary

Figure F-18B. Relationships Between Displacement Factor And Ratio of Critical Acceletation And Induced Acceleration ( After Egan, 1994.)

Figure F-19. Upper bound envelope curves of permanent displacements for all natural

Figure F-20. Variation of Normalized Permanent Deformation with Yield Acceleration

Mitigation Techniques and Considerations

Table F-3. Liquefaction Remediation Measures ( National Research Council 1985; Ferritto,1997b.)

Table F-3. Liquefaction Remediation Measures ( National Research Council 1985; Ferritto,1997b.) - Continued

Soil differential compaction.

Figure F-21. Vibroreplacement and installation of stone columns

Figure F-22. Conceptual Shemes to Resists Liquefaction- Included Settlement Or Bearing Capacity Reductions.

Figure F-23. Conceptual Schemes to Resists Liquefaction- Included Lateral Spreading

Documentation Of Geologic Hazards Evaluations

Appendix G. Geologic Hazard Screening And Evaluation Examples

Figure G-1. Map Of Building Site

The trench exposed no soil-bedrock contact.

Example 2. Liquefaction Hazard Screening

Liquefaction Hazard Screening

Example 3 - Liquefaction Potential Evaluation

Figure G-3. Plot of SPT Blowcounts Vs. Depth.

Figure G-5. Relationship Between Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) Causing Liquefaction And (Ni)

Table G-1. Calculation of the (Ni)60 Values

Table G-1. Calculation of the (Ni)60 Values - Continued

Figure G-7. Relationship Between id And Depth ( from Seed And Idriss, 1971).

Settlement

Table G-2. Calculation Of CSR And (Ni) 60 critical

Figure G-8. Relationships Between K And Go( From Seed And Harder, 1990).

Figure G-10. Correlation for Volumetric Strain, Cyclic Stress Ratio ( CSR) and (Ni)60 for Sands ( From Tokimatsu And Seed, 1987).

Settlement - Continued

Figure G-11. Plot Of Induced Shear Strain for Sands ( from Tokimatsu And Seed, 1987).

Table G-3. Calculation of settlement of sand above ground water table ..

Example 4 Landslide Hazard Screening

Figure G-13. Profile Of Earthquake Included Landsliding Example Problem.

Example 5 - Landslide hazard evaluation

Hazard mitigation

Appendix HI. Vehicle Maintenence Facility

Lateral Systems

Mezzanine Plan

Building Elevations

Brace Elevation

Design of building

Design of building - Continued

Determine preliminary member sizes for gravity load effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0535

Metal Roof Decking

Steel Columns

Roof Level Tributary Seismic Weights ( Roof & tributary Walls )

Calculate the vertical distribution of seismic forces

Longitudinal Seismic Forces - ufc_3_310_03a0540

Perform Static Analysis - ufc_3_310_03a0541

Mezzanine Diaphragm Forces

Distribute upper roof diaphragm shear forces to vertical resisting elements

Determine shear in vertical elements due to self-weight inertial effects - ufc_3_310_03a0544

Determine distribution or mezzanine shear force to vertical resisting elements

Typical Exterior Wall

Typical Interior Mezzanine Wall

Typical Interior Mezzanine Wall - Continued

Interior Shear Wall E1-E2 - ufc_3_310_03a0549

Interior Shear Wall E1-E2 - Continued

Mezzanine Level Diaphragm Shear Forces

Determine shear in vertical elements due to self-weight inertial effects - ufc_3_310_03a0552

Determine diaphragm chord and collector forces

Longitudinal Forces to Upper Diaphragm

Collector Forces

Out-of-Plane Wall Forces - ufc_3_310_03a0556

Determine cm and cr

Determine the Rigidity of Braced Frames

Perform torsional analysis - ufc_3_310_03a0559

Longitudinal Seismic Forces - ufc_3_310_03a0560

Distribution of Forces for Transverse Seismic Forces

B9. Determine Need for Overstrenght Factor

Determine structural member sizes - ufc_3_310_03a0563

Shear Walls

Shear Forces to Individual Piers

Interior Shear Wall E1-E2 - ufc_3_310_03a0566

Interior mezzanine CMU shear walls B1-B2 & H1-H2

Interior mezzanine CMU shear walls B1-B2 & H1-H2 - Continued

Out-of plane Forces On CMU Walls

Out-of-plane forces on CMU walls - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0570

Out-of-plane forces on CMU walls - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0571

Out-of-plane shear strength check

Standard reinforcement details for CMU shear walls

Perimeter roof beams

Braced Frames ( Typical Bay)

Braced Frames ( Typical Bay) - Continued

Braced Frames ( Typical Bay) - Continued

Brace Check

Shear Transfer Mechanism for Upper-Roof Diaphragm

Shear transfer mechanism for mezzanine-to-vertical element connection

Shear transfer mechanism for mezzanine-to-vertical element connection - Continued

Steel Connections

Roof Edge Beam-to-Column Connection at Braced Bay

Roof Edge Beam-to-Column Connection at Braced Bay - Continued

Gusset plates

Single Gusset

Double Gusset

Double Gusset - Continued

Bachelor Enlisted Quarters

Figure 1. Architectural floor plan

Figure 2. Foundation and first floor plan

Figure 3. Typical floor framing plan

Figure 4. Roof Framing Plan

Figure 5. Section A-A

Figure 6. Section B-B

Building design (following steps in Table 4-5 for Life Safety).

Determine preliminary member sizes for gravity load effects.

Determine preliminary member sizes for gravity load effects. - Continued

Corbel Design

Corbel Design - Continued

Transverse beam design

Transverse beam design - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0603

Transverse beam design - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0604

Determine Dead Load

Calculate Base Shear, V:

Assemblly Weights (PSF)

Building Weigths (kips)

Perform Static Analysis. - ufc_3_310_03a0609

Perform Static Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0610

Determine Cr and Cm - ufc_3_310_03a0611

Location of Mass Centroid of Roof in the Transverse Direction

Perform torsional analysis.

Perform torsional analysis. - Continued

Determine need for redundancy factor, ρ. - ufc_3_310_03a0615

Determine structural member sizes. - ufc_3_310_03a0616

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0617

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued

Figure 9. Design strength interaction diagram for shear wall section on grid lines 1 and 9

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0620

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0621

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0622

Figure 10. Design Strength Interaction Diagram for shear wall section on grid lines 2 through 8

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0624

Figure 11. Shear and moment diagrams for frame beams due to lateral loading

Figure 12. Shear and moment diagrams for frame beams due to gravity loads

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0627

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0628

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0629

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0630

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0631

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0632

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0633

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0634

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0635

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0636

Figure 13. Shear and Moment Diagrams for Frame Columns Due to Lateral Loading

Figure 14. Shear and Moment Diagrams for Frame Columns Due to Gravity Loading

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0639

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0640

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0641

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0642

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0643

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0644

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0645

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0646

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0647

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0648

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0649

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0650

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0651

Determine structural member sizes. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0652

H-3 Chapel

Floor Plan

Front Elevation

Side Elevation

Typical Eave Detail

Knee Detail for Rigid frame

Preliminary building design (Following steps in Table 4-5 for Life Safety).

Determine preliminary member sizes for gravity load effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0660

Beams Along Grid Lines B & H

Moment Frames - ufc_3_310_03a0662

Beam Design

Column Design

Calculate fundamental period, T

Building Seismic Weights

Calculate vertical distribution of seismic forces

Perform Static Analysis - ufc_3_310_03a0668

Perform Static Analysis - Continued

Longitudinal Direction - ufc_3_310_03a0670

Weight of roof and normal walls between grid lines 2 and 7

Longitudinal Direction - Continued

Seismic forces to vertical resisting elements from lower sloped roof diaphragm

Wall Rigidity Equations

Wall Rigidity Equations - Continued

Longitudinal direction - ufc_3_310_03a0676

Seismic forces to vertical resisting elements from entrance area diaphragm

Transverse direction

Lower Sloped Roof @ Entrance Tributary Seismic Weights (Roof and Normal)

Seismic forces to vertical resisting elements from sacristy area diaphragm

Shear Wall lines A&I

Lower Portions of Walls C7-C8 and G-7-G-8

Determine cr and cm - ufc_3_310_03a0683

Center of Rigidity

Lower sloped roof areas - ufc_3_310_03a0685

Perform torsional analysis - ufc_3_310_03a0686

Sacristy Areas

Lower Sloped Roof Areas - ufc_3_310_03a0688

Transverse Forces

Determine need for redundancy factor, ρ. - ufc_3_310_03a0690

Determine Structural Member Sizes - ufc_3_310_03a0691

The Pier Elements

Shearwall line 1

Shear wall line 7 (Walls 7A-7C & 7G-7I same by symmetry)

Shear wall line 7 (Walls 7A-7C & 7G-7I same by symmetry) - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0695

Shear wall line 7 (Walls 7A-7C & 7G-7I same by symmetry) - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0696

Shear walls D1-D2 and F1-F2

Shear walls A2-A7 and I2-I7

Shear wall lines A7-A8 & I7-I8

Horizontal bracing:

Moment frames - ufc_3_310_03a0701

Moment frames - Continued

Check Allowable Drift and P A Effect

Check for Performance Objective 2A

Identify force-controlled and deformation controlled structural components.

Determine DCR's For Deformation- Controlled Components

Horizontal Bracing

Horizontal Bracing - Continued

Design of horizontal bracing connections

Out-of-plane strength of plate

Design of gusset-to-column flange and beam web weld

Design of Gusset-to - Column flange And Beam Web Weld cont.

Design of gusset-to-column weld

Plan of Horizontal Bracing at Low Roof

Fire Station

Figure. 1 Building Plan Layout

Preliminary building design (following steps in Table 4-5 for Life Safety)

Determine preliminary member sizes for gravity load effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0719

Transverse Beams.

Columns.

Second Floor Slab.

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Calculate Vertical Distribution of Forces.

Assembly Weights (PSF)

Building Weights (KIPS)

Perform Static Analysis. - ufc_3_310_03a0727

Perform Static Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0728

Perform Static Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0729

Perform Static Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0730

Haunch Properties Are Calculated on Spreadsheet As Follows

Determine Cr and Cm.

Perform Torsional Analysis - ufc_3_310_03a0733

Determine Need for Redundancy Factor,P

Calculate Combined Load Effects

Determine structural member sizes. - ufc_3_310_03a0736

Chord/ Collector Elements (Low Roof).

Chord/Collector Elements (High Roof).

Moment Frames (Low Roof).

Check plastic hinge location;

Check plastic hinge location - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0741

Check plastic hinge location - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0742

Check plastic hinge location - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0743

Check plastic hinge location - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0744

Moment Frames without truss (High Roof).

Moment Frames without truss (High Roof). - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0746

Moment Frames without truss (High Roof). - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0747

Moment Frames without truss (High Roof). - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0748

Moment Frame With Truss ( High Roof).

Moment Frame With Truss ( High Roof). - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0750

Moment Frame With Truss ( High Roof). - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0751

Moment Frame With Truss ( High Roof). - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0752

Check allowable drift and P ∆ effect.

Enhanced Performance Objective

Identify Force Controlled And Deformation Controlled Structural Components

Determine Qce For Deformation-Controlled Components

Determine DCR's For Deformation Controlled Components

Determine DCR's For Deformation Controlled Components - Continued

Determine DCR's For Deformation Controlled Components - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0759

Determine DCR's For Deformation Controlled Components - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0760

Determine QUF and QCL For Force-Controlled Components and Compare QUF With QCL

Determine QUF and QCL For Force-Controlled Components and Compare QUF With QCL - Continued

Revise Member Sizes as Necessary and Repeat Analysis.

Revise Member Sizes as Necessary and Repeat Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0764

Revise Member Sizes as Necessary and Repeat Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0765

Revise Member Sizes as Necessary and Repeat Analysis. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0766

Design connections.

Design connections. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0768

Design connections. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0769

Design connections. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0770

Design connections. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0771

Moment Frame Detail For Low Roof

Design connections. - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0773

Illustration - ufc_3_310_03a0774

Appendix 1-1 Suspended Ceiling Bracing

Bracing System

Digure II-1 Force Diagram for Bracing Wires

Figure II-2. Wire Support And Bracing System

Masonry Partition Bracing

Figure 12-3. Detail Of Forces in Brace Connection

Determine appropriate Seismic Use Group

Determine Seismic Force Effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0782

Design Members - ufc_3_310_03a0783

Conclusion

Elevator Guard Rail Bracing

Determine Seismic Force Effects

Figure J-1-1. Guide Rail Elevation

Design Members - ufc_3_310_03a0788

Figure J1-2. Composite Section of Stiffened Guide Rail

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0790

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0791

Figure J1-4. Section Through Guide Rail Bracket

Design Members - Continued

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0794

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0795

Equipment Platform Bracing

Component design. - ufc_3_310_03a0797

Lateral load reisiting system.

Determine member sizes for gravity load effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0799

Figure J2-5. Transverse Beam Connection, Elevation View

Determine Seismic Force Effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0801

Figure J2-6. Force Diagram for Tank to Platform Welds

Design Members - ufc_3_310_03a0803

Figure J2-7. Seismic Force Diagram for Supporting Legs and Braces

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0805

Figure J2-8. Brace Connection Details and Nomenclature

Figure J2-9. Brace to Brace Connection

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0808

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0809

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0810

Pipe Bracing

Component design. - ufc_3_310_03a0812

Determine member sizes for gravity load effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0813

Determine Seismic Force Effects. - ufc_3_310_03a0814

Design Members

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0816

Figure J3-3. Longitudinal Pipe Restraint And force Diagram

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0818

Design Members - Continued - ufc_3_310_03a0819